1568: The Maneswaard by Thomas Witteroos

This map is made by Thomas Witteroos in 1568 and depicts the river island Maneswaard in the Rhine opposite of Wageningen. At the bottom the Rhine is flowing from left to right, which means that the North is below.

The bigger curve is an older meander of the same Rhine: the Rhine had it cut off after a winter with high water level: during the winter the whole area gets flooded, and in the spring, when the water lowers, the river cuts off some meanders in search of the most efficient route. This is a normal and natural process for meandering rivers. What is left is an oxbow lake and a river island. The central part of The Netherlands is full of oxbow lakes and river islands.

This river island is part of the Municipality of Wageningen and it is the only part of Wageningen on the south bank of the Rhine. And this map shows exactly why: when drawing the borders of the municipalities, the Maneswaard laid at the nothern side within an inside bend meander of the Rhine. But when the Rhine had cut it off, it became an island and nowadays it is just a piece of land at the other side of the Rhine. Oxbow lakes tend to dry up and that is exactly what happened here as well. This meandering process and the formation of oxbow islands caused long and serious disputes about the ownership of the land.

de Maneswaard in 1568, GA 0012: 1413-0001

Witteroos depicts both arms of the Rhine even wide, but the ships use the new shortcut. The old curve is still full of water, although he depicts sand in the inner bends: it is drying up.

Witteroos draws one farm on the island and various agricultural fields.

1607: Middelwaard near Rhenen

1607: Vatrixwaard near Elst

1614: The Essenveltswaard by Bernard Kempinck

In 1614 Bernard Kempinck made a map of the other flood plain of Wageningen. North is left. In the center you see the Rhine flowing from top to bottom. On the right the south bank, on the left the floodplain that he calls the Essenveltswaard. Nowadays we call it the Triangel.

Kaart van Wageningen uit 1614
Wageningen in 1614, Kempinck, GA 667-0021

1660: The Middelwaard near Rhenen

1668: Essenveltswaard and Maneswaard by Isaac van Geelkercken

This map from 1668 shows both river islands. The map is made by Isaac van Geelkercken, one of the three sons of Nicolaes van Geelkercken, who all three stepped into their father’s footsteps and made beautiful maps. It is 60 * 142 cm and made on sheets of paper that have been glued together.

De Rijn in 1668
GA 0012: 1413-0003

The north is below. Just outside the map Wageningen is at the bottom left. The Rhine flows from left to right.

The floodplain on the right is the Maneswaard (see the map of Thomas Witteroos). The other is the Essenveltswaard that we nowadays call the Triangel.

1778: Various floodplains

GA 478-0005

Location of the maps in The Netherlands: