This is a map from the 17th century of the Administrative District of Arnhem in Gelderland in the center of The Netherlands. Bottom right is Arnhem; the map covers a large part of the Park De Hoge Veluwe.

Historical map
Gelders Archief 1551-70

The map has been made by Nicolaes van Geelkercken in 1656 and measures 52 by 62 cm. He used paper, ink and water paint. It must have been one of his last maps, because Nicolaes died in 1656.

There are several other maps that resemble this one: now you copy or scan a map if you need a basis to start with, but the 17th century were different times. Map-makers often adapted an old map to their new goal. Nicolaes used a map from 1610 as the basis for this one in 1656. Apparently not so much had been changed in those 46 years.

It is a roughly sketched map showing the limits of the Administrative District of Arnhem. Nicolaes draws a few forests, but most of the land was bare heathland. The beauty of this map lies in the details: it shows lots of hills and valleys, roads, farms and estates in the countryside with houses, fields and trees, but also smaller details like boundary markers, gallows, poles and dams.

Location of the map in The Netherlands:

Map of The Netherlands
AHN